History and company team background

CSK-4/TITUS PROGRAMMABLE SPACE FACILITY

Tubular Furnace with Integrated Thermal Anylysis under Space Conditions for materials sciences experiments (e.g. crystal growth, solidification, diffusion, physical chemistry) (operational on board MIR Space Station from 1995 to 2001)

CSK4/TITUS is the further delelopment in series of furnaces starting with CSK-1, CSK-1C and has been used for the first time during the EuroMIR'95 mission (in co-operation with DLR-MUSC, ESA, DARA, Humboldt Univ., Kayser-Threde, Energija/MIR). The facility was last used during the MIR'99 - Perseus mission (ESA, CNES) (1999)

TITUS space facility with German astronauts Hans-Pieter Schegel and Reinhold Ewald (Project MIR'97) (photo DLR, Germany) TITUS space facility on board the MIR space station with the French astronaut Jean-Pierre Haigeneré (Project French MIR'99 - Persues) (photo CNES, France)



Facility Parameters:

Dimensions 1255 x 320 x 260 mm
Mass 43.7 kg + 13.0 kg (auxiliary equipment)
Voltage 27 + 7 / -4 Volt DC
Data interface RS 232, max. 19.2 kbits/second



Furnace (CSK-4)

Heaters 6 (4 narrow, 2 wide zones)
Temperature 100 to 1250 °C
Accuracy of
   temperature setting ± 2.5 K
   temperature control ± 0.3 K
Max. axial temperature gradient 5 to 30 K/cm (sample material dependent)
Heated lenght 200 mm
Translation Gradient freezing, cartridge movement
Feeding length 480 mm
Feeding speed 0.01 to 20.8 mm/h
Accuracy of positioning ± 0.01 mm
Atmosphere Ambient



Crew Interface Computer

Type IBM Thinkpad 755 C with docking station
Processor 486 DX/4, 75 MHz, 20 MB
Storage capacity hard disk 500 MB
Storage capacity PCMCIA 350 MB (exchangeable)
Max. power 115 W
Interfaces 3 RS 232 serial interfaces



Measurement electronics (TEGRA)

Interface 2 RS 232 serial
Measuring frequency - temperature 0.01 to 1 Hz
Measuring frequency - gravitation 50/100/200 Hz
Measuring range - temperature 0 to 1400 °C
Measuring range - gravitation ± 50 mg
Resolution - temperature 10 mK
Resolution - gravitation 25 µg



The Experimental and Diagnostic Features:

  • 2 operation modes
    • Bridgman type / gradient-freezing method
    • isothermal profile
  • positioning of thermocouple inside sample capillary (capsule mode)
  • up to 10 thermocouples NiCrSi-NiSi or Pt-PtRh type (probe mode)
  • temperature measurement resolution
    • absolut temperature 0.3 K
    • temperature difference 10 mK
  • differential thermal analysis
  • calorimetry
  • temperature distribution measurement
  • dedicated 3-axis acceleration measuring package

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