History and company team background

Scientific and technological projects

The scientific and technological level of the BBT staff can be demonstrated by numerous successful projects, including:

• CSK-1: Development and production of the programmable space crystallizer CSK-1 for the material research in Space (operational on board MIR orbital laboratory from 1984 up to 2001). It was used for numerous experiments within the INTERKOSMOS programme, EuroMIR'94 and EuroMIR'95 missions and others.

• Establishment and operation the laboratory for the ground-based preparation, realisation and scientific evaluation of space experiments (International Users Support Centre for Interkosmos projects in materials sciences which also served for German experiment TES in 1993-4). BBT was also certified and fully agreed for an official qualification of experiments for the performance on the Russian orbital station MIR.

• INTERKOSMOS: Preparation, realisation and analysis of the international projects. Principal investigator for the following projects: Morava I (1976-80, Soljut-Sojuz), Morava II (1986-88, MIR) and Morava III (1990-97, MIR) - non-equilibrium directional solidification of dielectric and super-conductive materials and semi-conductive glasses; CSK-3 (1989-90) and CSK-1 (1984-99) - H/W & S/W.

• Solidification of multi-component melts: research and development and manufacture of H/W & S/W, preparation, realisation and evaluation of the ground-based, space and post-flight experiments.

• CSK-4/TITUS: H/W & S/W, research and development and manufacture of the programmable space furnace CSK-4 /TITUS (1991-97) for the Euromir´95 mission. (In co-operation with DLR-MUSC, ESA, DARA, Humboldt Univ., Energija/MIR).

• Assistance in the training of astronauts to operate CSK-1 and CSK-4/TITUS furnaces to realise technological and materials experiments on board Space Station MIR.

• Development of equipment for material experiments both in micro-gravity in Space and in a short weightlessness using a drop tower and in increased gravity fields in specialised centrifuges.

• RIM-MIR: preparation, realisation and scientific evaluation of the experiments of a recalescence of Ag-Ge alloys carried out on board the space station MIR by means of the CSK-1 furnace.(three-lateral co-operation of Germany (DLR-MUSC), Czechoslovakia and Russia).

• TES and TEST-TES: Participation in the ground-based preparation, realisation and scientific evaluation of the German (DLR-MUSC) TES and TEST-TES experiments of a recalescence of alloys (realised on board MIR orbital laboratory using CSK-1 furnace).

• Fallturm Bremen: Preparation, realisation and scientific evaluation of the non-equilibrium solidification experiments performed under conditions of a short-term free fall. (In co-operation with ZARM-University in Bremen, Germany.)

• CSK-1A and CSK-1B: research and development and manufacture of the space furnaces for MIR-type and FOTON-type orbital laboratories. (In co-operation with Kayser-Threde, Germany.)

• CSK-1C: research and development and manufacture of the special space furnace for materials experiments (Germany) on board MIR orbital laboratory (1995-6). BBT also participated in ground-based preparation, H/W & S/W preparation of the experimental part.

• EuroMIR'94 (1994-5): Set of technological experiments on board MIR using the CSK-1C furnace (ESA, DARA, DLR-MUSC, BBT-Materials Processing, Energija). BBT participated in the ground -based preparation, H/W & S/W of the experimental part and testing in the orbital laboratory.

• EuroMIR'95 (1995-1996): Set of technological experiments on board MIR using the TITUS/CSK-4 furnace (ESA, DARA, DLR-MUSC, BBT-Materials Processing, Energija, Humboldt Univ., Kayser Threde). BBT participated in the ground-based preparation, H/W & S/W of the experimental part.

• GermanMIR'97 (1997): German project (DLR-MUSC) - set of technological experiments on board MIR orbital laboratory using the BBT furnace CSK-4 (TITUS).

• FrenchMIR'99 - Perseus (1999): Set of technological experiments on board MIR using the BBT furnace CSK-4 (TITUS) - RSC ENERGIJA (Russia) and CNES (France).

CSK-1C and CSK-4/TITUS furnaces on board MIR orbital laboratory



• Research and development and growing of mercurous halides and other heavy metals halides single crystals from the vapour and its applications (acousto-optics, polarizers, IR-optics, etc.)

• Fast optical processors in Space - BBT is growing crystals for the optical processors (in co-operation with STIL, Ireland).

• Research and development and growing of big size sapphire (Al2O3), ruby and garnets single crystals (from melts, Horizontal Directed Solidification Method) for electronics, optics and some other special applications.

• Passive damping platform developed for the International Space Station. It enables to work under deep microgravity conditions by reducing board effects (vibrations and micro-accelerations) which enables to reach extremely non-equilibrium conditions in fluids and to appoint the particular thermodynamic parameters (heat transfer, etc.).

• Thermographic and DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis) probes: The thermographic probe with ten thermocouples can evaluate and appoint a temperature profile in the TITUS type furnaces. The differential thermal analysis (DTA) probe with six chambers is used for both the study of phase transitions in materials and an accurate calibration of absolute temperature scale.

• Advanced TITUS MPP Multi-purpose Platform developed for the the International Space Station to be used for material science experiments under microgravity conditions by the broad international scientific community. It is designed e.g. for materials experiments dedicated to solidification processes, crystal growth, diffusion, physical chemistry, etc.. The following experimentation techniques can be utilised: Bridgman, travelling heater method, gradient freezing, zone melting, isothermal processing (annealing, preparation of glasses, etc.), condensation and chemical transport, differential thermal analysis (DTA), directional solidification of multicomponent melts, polycrystals, alloys, sublimation growth and chemical vapour transport reactions, etc.

• Research and development and manufacture of the H/W & S/W equipment for the realisation and scientific evaluation of experiments demanding a precise control and exact measuring of the working temperature and its course within a sample.

• Digital Image Analysis (sample microstructures, etc.)

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